WordPress Dashboard Overview
Primary Navigation Panel (Left Panel)
This is where a majority of your options are located to customize and populate your website with content. Clicking on any item inside of the primary navigation panel will show additional items and options. Some plugins may add items to your primary navigation panel (either as their own item, or under "Tools").
Administrative Navigation Bar (Top Bar)
Here you can customize or WordPress login settings (top right). Various quick-links are also provided to make it easier for you to jump to commonly used tasks (top left). While you are logged into the WordPress Dashboard, the Administrative Navigation Bar will still show at the top of your website, allowing you to easily switch between viewing your website and editing from inside of the Dashboard.
Screen Options Tab (Top Right Tab)
Each screen within the Dashboard has various viewing options and you can choose to display or hide certain editing options for that screen. These have no affect on your website, and are primarily used to simplify your website editing experience.
Help Tab (Top Right Tab)
This tab offers instructions based on the screen currently being viewed. Various links are also provided to direct you to WordPress.org in case you need additional assistance with an item on the page.
Want to learn more about WordPress?
WordPress Tutorial Videos: To help you easily grasp the basics of creating a WordPress website, FatCow has created several free tutorial videos. These videos were designed to be followed in order, but you are welcome to view whichever one best suites your needs.
You can always check out WordPress.org and browse their codex or online help forums.